Support Group B-Focasd
Brevard Families of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders
(or Similar Disabilities). Melborne meetings are the first Wednesday of every month 7-9 p.m. Cari at
Brevard Families of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (or Similar
BFOCASD meetings are the first Wednesday of every month from 7-9 p.m.
Brevard County, Florida
At Incredible Horizons
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from the board or a book can also be a symptom. There may be a general
disorganization of written work. A child may not be able to remember
content, even if it involves a favorite video or storybook.
Problems with spatial relationships
can extend beyond the classroom and be observed on the playground. The
child may appear to be uncoordinated and have difficulty with organized
sports or games. Difficulty with left and right is common, and often a
dominance for either hand has not been established. In the early grades,
music and dance are often used to enhance academic learning. Children with
dyslexia can have difficulty moving to the rhythm of the music.
Problems in areas of memory dealing with
language, sequences, facts and information that has not been
experienced. Retrieval of phonological information from long-term
memory refers to how the child remembers pronunciations of letters, word
segments, or entire words. Children with dyslexia may have difficulty in
this area, which leads to slow and inaccurate recall of phonological codes
Letter and number reversals
are fairly common up to the age of seven or eight and usually diminish by
that time. If they do not, it may be appropriate to test for dyslexia or
other learning problems. Please try eliminating
dairy from the diet before undergoing testing. More often than not
this will help.
three main types of dyslexia that can affect the child's ability to spell as
well as read. Each type has a different cause. The three main types are trauma
dyslexia, primary dyslexia and developmental
usually occurs after some type of brain trauma or injury to the area of the
brain that controls reading and writing. This type of dyslexia is rarely
seen in today's school-age population./
is a dysfunction of, rather than damage to, the left side of the brain
(cerebral cortex). Primary dyslexia is
hereditary and is found more often in boys than in girls./The
difference between primary dyslexia and trauma dyslexia is that trauma
dyslexia occurs after a brain trauma and primary dyslexia is a dysfunction
of the brain.
is caused by hormonal development during the early stages of fetal
development. Developmental dyslexia diminishes as the child matures. This
type is also more common in boys.
Dyslexia involves several different functions: visual, auditory and Dysgraphia.
Visual/lexical dyslexia is characterized by visual distortions that
can be displayed by difficulties with whole-word reading,
number and letter reversals and
the inability to write symbols in the correct sequence.
Auditory/Phonological dyslexia involves difficulty with sounds of letters or
groups of letters. The sounds are perceived as jumbled or not heard
"Dysgraphia" refers to the
child's difficulty holding and controlling a pencil so that the correct
markings can be made on the paper.
to 15% of the US school population has dyslexia. Dyslexics have an inherited
neurological difference, resulting in language, perceptual, processing, and
attention/concentration differences. In
other words, it is a neurologically based language and cognitive disorder that
affects our ability to learn and function. It
is no longer considered just a reading disorder, and it can not be corrected
by simply improving reading skills with a tutor.
The regular classroom teacher
normally does not have the time or the knowledge to accommodate the dyslexic
dyslexic child learns differently and requires accommodations to be successful
in the classroom. A
list of classroom accommodations has
been created. With the proper recognition and
intervention, dyslexics become successful individuals using their talents and
skills to enrich our society.
According to Dr
Chris Singleton a Chartered Psychologist and Senior Lecturer in
Educational Psychology -University of Hull-the following perspectives have
Developmental precursors of dyslexia
At the pre-school stage many dyslexic children are
already showing early signs of their disorder. The key is usually an uneven
developmental profile, particularly in cases where there is a family history
of speech or literacy difficulties, or where there is evidence of significant
birth difficulties. Characteristic difficulties include one or more of the
Delays in the development of speech and language.
Difficulties in learning simple patterns of
sequential activity, such as remembering the order of simple instructions
or reproducing a pattern of colored beads or bricks.
Difficulties of fine or gross motor co-ordination.
High distractibility and poor concentration
Cognitive precursors of dyslexia
There is substantial evidence that both phonological
processing and short-term memory are important factors in dyslexia. It is now
well-established that phonological processing ability is very closely related
to reading development.
The value and validity of early identification of
dyslexia Without early identification procedures the teacher may easily assume that
the child is lazy or simply requires more time for reading skills to develop.
When children are diagnosed as dyslexic late in the school career, a typical
complaint made by parents is that they felt there was something wrong from
their child's earliest years at school.
However, when the parents expressed these misgivings to the teacher, the
response was often: 'Don't worry, s/he will pick it (i.e. literacy) up in
time'. In these particular cases the child did not 'pick it up' and
consequently required specialist remediation some years later after the
problem was eventually diagnosed. By this time the child will often have
lost motivation and even become difficult or disruptive in class. This state
of affairs is often the focus of strong parental resentment and
dissatisfaction with the education system.
Recent research has led to the development
of early screening and diagnostic tools which can be used to identify very
young children (4:6) at risk of reading difficulties. In addition, early
methods of intervention have been developed which allow the possibility of
preventing the difficulties from ever arising.
DEST (Dyslexia Early Screening Test)
is provided by incredible Horizons. It is used with pupils aged 4 years 6
months to 6 years 5 months to provide a profile of strengths and weaknesses
which can be used to guide the development of support. Sub-tests are: Rapid
Naming, Phonological Discrimination, Rhyme Detection/First Letter Sound, Digit
Naming, Bead Threading, Postural Stability, Forward Digit Span, Sound Order
and Shape Copying.
valuable screening tool for deciding whether to request further testing.
Scores show risk indicators & percentile ranks
strengths and weaknesses, which can be used to guide the development of
in-school support for the child.
research has been established through Dr. Levinson that dyslexia can be an
inner ear dysfunction.
ABOUT DR LEVINSON
Dr. Harold N. Levinson, a world-renowned psychiatrist and neurologist, is
credited with being largely responsible for bringing about dramatic change in
Americas perception of Dyslexia or Learning Disabilities (LD) as well as
related Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Phobias.
He began his work on these disorders 30 years
ago within the New York City Board of Education. Previously Clinical Associate
Professor of Psychiatry at NYU Medical Center, Dr. Levinson is currently the
director of The
Medical Dyslexic and ADD Treatment Center on Long Island.
Ever since the early 1970's, Dr. Harold
Levinson's groundbreaking research has continued to demonstrate that the
symptoms of Dyslexia or Learning Disabilities (LD), Attention Deficit Disorder
(ADD), and related Phobic symptoms are due to a simple signal-scrambling
disturbance of inner-ear (cerebellar-vestibular) origin.
In other words, the inner-ear acts as a
"fine-tuner" for all motor (balance/coordination/rhythm) signals
leaving the brain and all sensory and related cognitive signals entering it.
As a result, normal thinking brains will have difficulty processing the
scrambled or distorted signals received. And the final symptoms will depend
on: (1) the degree of signal-scrambling, (2) the location and function of the
varied normal brain centers receiving and having to process these scrambled
signals, as well as (3) the brain's compensatory ability for de-scrambling.
Dr. Levinson's research has clearly and
definitely shown that Dyslexia and LD are sometimes the same. In other words,
Dyslexia is a syndrome of many and varied symptoms differing in intensity. And
thus some dyslexics will have severe reading, spelling and speech difficulties
while others will have major problems with only math, memory and
concentration. Yet all suffer from an inner-ear-determined dysfunction.
"The wide range of expected and unexpected
improvements due to my medical treatment more than justifies my theory of the
inner-ear system as the fine-tuner for the brain's entire sensory input and
motor output. Furthermore, the observed improvements have clearly highlighted
the inner-ear-determined and related mechanisms previously noted to be
responsible for creating the diverse symptoms characterizing the dyslexic
Solution to resolving inner ear issues is the The Listening Program
Therapy Through The Listening Program® -
a Year Long Experiment with Dyslexic Students
by Dorothy Lockhart Lawrence on behalf of Ann Davies
In the May 2002 issue of the PATOSS Bulletin, Authorized Provider Ann
Davies wrote of her initial use of TLP in an article entitled "Sound
Therapy Through The Listening Program®" which
we reprinted in the June/July 2002 PPOV. Since then she has documented
results with five of her pupils and this new article was published in the
May/June 2003 issue of PATOSS. We have added the charts Ann supplied us
with showing each pupil's progress. The PATOSS Bulletin is the publication
of The Professional Association of Teachers in the UK of students with
specific learning difficulties.
Ann Davies followed the progress of five of her pupils who have been
attending the Education Centre in Nottingham for three years or longer.
Over these years they all had multi-sensory teaching, access to
computerized learning, and targeted teaching to their individual needs. In
spite of these learning aids, none of these students made substantial
improvement in their reading abilities over any one year period.
However they did make impressive gains in reading and other areas after
the completion of one cycle or 20 hours of the music based auditory
intervention called The Listening Program®, or
TLP, developed by Advanced Brain Technologies, given alongside their
normal teaching program. The Listening Program®
is a method of enhancing auditory and other sensory processing that
utilizes intentionally produced acoustic music with proprietary sound
To illustrate the dramatic changes in function and auditory processing,
each pupil's background is given along with the professional evaluation of
the benefits of the program. (The benefits they experience are highlighted
Pupil One is in his fifth year of tuition at the Centre. He is both
dyslexic and dyspraxic and made slow progress in literacy. He is 14 years
old and is shy and lacking confidence. He has had multi sensory teaching
and fatty acid supplements.
After having sound stimulation with TLP for 20 hours over an eight week
period, Pupil One went from 8:8 years (8 years, 8 months) on the WRAT
single word reading test to 12:8 years. His reading had improved
by four years in a five month period. In four of five Scan A*
tests Pupil One scored in the Disordered range prior to listening. His
auditory skills moved out of the Disordered range into the Questionable
area moving towards Normal post listening.
Prior to the course Pupil One had often appeared to be "vacant"
and had difficulty formulating sentences, let alone generating a page of
text. He is now more alert, has increased his speed of recall of
information and can complete phonological tasks he was unable to do prior
to the sound stimulation program. He has also gained personal confidence
and has at this crucial period of his education become motivated to
achieve. Prior to the sound stimulation intervention, his goal was to 'get
out of school as soon as possible.'
Pupil Two is 13:9 years and in his third year of tuition at the Centre. He
has severe dyslexia affecting both the auditory and visual pathways. He
had been labeled by primary school as disruptive and disinterested in
school. In spite of this, he is a quick thinker, knowledgeable, has
practical skills, and shows excellent non-verbal reasoning ability.
After having sound stimulation for 20 hours, Pupil Two went from 7:9 years
on the WRAT single word reading test to 10:3 years. His reading
had improved by 2:6 years in a three month period. Pupil Two
moved from the Disordered range in auditory processing prior to listening
into the lower part of the Normal range.
In addition to improved reading ability, he gained an improved sense of
well-being and alertness. Whilst on TLP, he awakened easily in the morning
and was more alert and energized than usual.
Pupil Three is 9:10 years and is in his fourth year of tuition at the
Centre. He has semantic pragmatic disorder and is dyspraxic. Due to
language deficits he has had both social and educational problems. He is
generally restless and unable to keep on task. His reading and spelling
are below his age level.
The Scan C pre-test for Pupil Three was in the Normal range but with a low
competing words score and mixed dominance. His Scan C post-test showed
he was in the Normal range in all areas. His reading scores on the WRAT
single word reading test went from 9 years to 11 years following TLP showing
a 2 year gain in 7 months.
Pupil Three responded positively in numerous areas in addition to scores
demonstrated in the auditory Scan A and reading tests. His spelling
ability improved by 3:1 years in a 7 month period from a
level of 9:5 years pre-test to a level of 12:6 post test. He also had
noticeable improvement in gross motor coordination, body tone,
concentration, and a reduction in the level of restlessness. This pupil
has completed a second cycle of The Listening Program with the outcome of
improved fine motor coordination expressed in even handwriting, and the
ability to write creatively and imaginatively, a skill that had hitherto
eluded him. In addition he has moved from being hesitant and repeating
phrases to give himself time to formulate his next idea.
This now happy, confident, and literate pupil is aiming for University and
wants to continue using The Listening Program® for
the rest of his school life.
Severely dyslexic, Pupil Four is in his fifth year of tuition at the
Centre. He is 14:3 years and has weak auditory and visual memory and poor
Pupil Four jumped two levels in the pre and post Scan A testing. He went
from Disordered auditory processing to Normal. Because he has had so much
difficulty with literacy he did not take the WRAT single word reading
test. At the time he was reading "The Live Wire Series" with a
reading age of 6-8 years. However after TLP, he was given the NFER Group
Reading Test 9-14 Form Y. He had last attempted this test in June 2000 and
had gained a Standardized Score of -70. In November 2002, post TLP, he
scored at 11:3 years with a Standardized Score of 84.
He can now blend sounds, complete phoneme deletion tasks and read from
materials for GCSE. His reading is slow and hesitant but he is able to
read and understand the text.
Severe dyslexia affecting both auditory and visual pathways brought Pupil
Five to the Education Centre in 1995. He has attended for the past seven
years but his problems have proved fairly intractable and he has responded
only minimally to a wide range of teaching strategies. Now 14 years, he
has had regular assessments since the age of seven with a local
His non-verbal skills are in the superior range and received and
expressive vocabulary 16+ years. However his reading and spelling skills
lagging five years behind his chronological age, he had poor phonological
and poor visual recall of words for spelling. He has learned to type, used
voice activated software, and has been an avid audio book listener.
The Scan A pre-test showed Disordered auditory processing in the competing
words test. The Scan A test taken four months later showed all tests
within the Normal range with scores overlapping suggesting an integrated
auditory processing system. Reading scores for Pupil Five for the WRAT
single word reading test went from 8:9 years to 11 years, an
improvement of 2 years 3 months in a 4 month period.
Results for all five pupils are supported by standardized assessments.
The auditory Scan A tests show that changes have taken place in the
The age range of pupils included here along with their developmental
histories show that change has occurred through means other than
No other interventions were in place during their listening period
other than their normal weekly lesson, which all have had for three
years or more.
None had ever made the kind of improvements in their reading ability
over a one year period as they have made on completing a 20 hour cycle
or more of TLP.
Thus it is suggested that The Listening Program® has had a distinct
impact on the pupils' learning. It suggests that sound stimulation
intervention can bring faster immediate improvement, thus allowing the
pupil to benefit much more fully from the 'normal' multi sensory teaching
interventions put in place concurrently and thereafter.
*Scan A is a standardized test to assess an individual's auditory
processing skills over four key areas. There is a Scan C for pupils up to
and including those aged 11 years. Scan A is used for those 12 years of
age and upward. Both Scan C and Scan-A are provided by Incredible Horizons
What can you expect The
Below for more Information
Info on Dyslexia & other tools that may help
The word "dyslexia" comes from the Greek and means 'difficulty with
words'. It is a congenital and developmental condition that causes neurological
anomalies in the brain. This affects the underlying skills that are needed for
learning to read, write and spell. In
other words, it is a neurologically based language and cognitive disorder that
affects our ability to learn and function.
It is no longer considered just a reading disorder, and it can not be
corrected by simply improving reading skills with a tutor.
Possible difficulties caused by dyslexia include: hesitant reading
misreading that makes understanding what you read difficult, difficulty with
sequences poor organization or time management, erratic spelling, &
difficulty organizing thoughts clearly. However, people with dyslexia often
have specific strengths. These may include innovative thinking excellent
troubleshooting creativity lateral thinking intuitive problem solving. See The
Gifts Of Dyslexia
directionality or poor right/left discrimination.
2. Poor performance on visual-motor gestalt test for age and
3. Field dependent perception.
4. Impaired auditory discrimination.
5. Poor spatial orientation.
6. Impaired temporal orientation.
7. Impaired coordination or gross motor skills.
8. Impaired fine motor skills.
9. Impaired reproduction of tonal patterns.
10. Impaired reproduction of rhythmic patterns.
11. Speech irregularities.
13. Short attention span for age.
14. Slow in finishing work.
15. Poor ability to organize work.
16. Variability in performance.
17. Impaired inhibitory patterns or preservative behaviors.
18. Low tolerance to frustration.
19. Impaired activity levels.
20. Concrete thought patterns.
21. Possible secondary emotional overlay.
Spotty performance on intelligence test, achievement high in some
areas while low in others, high on some types of tests while low
on others. Depression in intelligence scores.
23. Mental age on Draw-A-Man test below mental age on individual
Reading disabilities. (Oral reading and/or comprehension)
25. Spelling disabilities.
26. Writing disabilities. (Dysgraphia)
27. Expressive problems. (Dysphasia)
28. Mathematical and/or calculation disabilities. (Dyscalculia)
29. Poor performance on group tests that require reading and
30. Frequent perceptual reversals in reading or writing beyond age
and instructional level.
31. Phonological awareness problems.
32. Poor retention of learned information.
According to Dr
Chris Singleton a Chartered Psychologist and Senior Lecturer in
Educational Psychology -University of Hull: "There is substantial
evidence that both phonological processing and short-term memory are important
factors in dyslexia. It is now well-established that phonological processing
ability is very closely related to reading development. Children who, when
they start school, show good phonological awareness (i.e. are aware of
syllables and can detect rhyme and alliteration) are the ones who are most
likely to make good progress in learning to read. On the other hand, children
with difficulty in carrying out these types of phonological tasks when they
begin school are the ones who are most likely to have difficulties with
learning to read even though they may overcome their difficulties with speech
sounds as such.
This is what makes developing the auditory
processing skills so imperative to treating dyslexia. The Listening program
seen above is a great tool for that.
In general, it is argued (a) that phonological processes
underpin the development of a phonological decoding strategy in reading, and
(b) that working memory plays a significant role in this strategy, enabling
constituent sounds and/or phonological codes to be held in short-term store
until these can be recognized as a word and its meaning accessed in long-term
This makes SoundSmart
an ideal tool for early intervention for dyslexia.
children master the letter/sound relationship they can successfully read and
write hundreds of words.
If a child lacks phonemic awareness, they
will have difficulty learning the relationship between letters and the sounds
they represent in words, as well as applying those letter/sound
correspondences to help them "sound out" unknown words. Sound Smart
also works on math and memory skills.
The reading struggles that dyslexics face can be resolved through reading
software specially designed for the way they need to be taught. The
Lexia family of products improve the student's reading skills through a phonics
based, multi-sensory approach. Based on the Orton-Gillingham method, Lexia uses
a combination of sound, images, and software-based manipulatives.
Light and Sound-builds neural
pathways through multi sensory stimulation. New pathways will allow the
dyslexic brain to function more efficiently.
Log-Visual skills module-IMPROVES VISUAL PROCESSING SKILLS & SPEED-
THE ATTENTION MODULES AND MEMORY MODULES MAY BE USEFUL FOR CO EXISTING
Present research is
beginning to confirm the biochemical differences in the dyslexic/ADD child
and adult. An understanding of these differences is necessary for
developing a holistic program which addresses them not only from an
academic but from a physiological standpoint.
Balance Formula 1
may be the first supplement to help Dyslexia. There are two ways it can help
"Dyslexic children use nearly five times the
brain area as normal children while performing a simple language task,
according to a new study by an interdisciplinary team of University of
Washington researchers. The study shows for the first time that there are
chemical differences in the brain function of dyslexic and non-dyslexic
children". (Science Daily 10/1999)
This study demonstrated that learning/reading with
Dyslexia uses almost five more neurons/neural connections in the brain than
the normal brain. It would seem that if learning/reading requires that much
more brain activity that their brains would need more brain food/amino acids
to keep up with its needs. (Just like bodies that exercise more have more
nutritional demands.) This would explain the known inconsistencies/variances
in academic and functional skills. Balance Formula 1 would provide the perfect
balance of amino acids and nutrients to improve neurotransmitter production.
This would smooth out the communications between the neurons, thus improving
the pathways for learning.
"Relieving some of the physical and biochemical
stress can be beneficial to the learning and behavioral situation.
Understanding how to control the dramatic biochemical shifts through natural
means is extremely important for more level functioning and to prevent other
physiological, emotional, and medical problems in the future" (The
Dyslexia Research Institute).
When the Hypothalamus is not working correctly, when it’s not functioning up
to par, the wrong neuro-signals are generated and the wrong neuro-messages are
received, resulting in an inaccurate integration of all our sensory input,
leading to faulty perceptions which affect how we learn & experience life.
Balance Formula 1 can correct the inaccurate perception and
integration of visual and auditory stimuli by supporting hypothalamic
functioning. For More informationClick
Our Assistive Reading Software allows you to
transfer any reading material into a computer file. Then the program reads the
material aloud while the student follows the cursor on the words being read.
The wonderful part of this software is that anyone struggling with reading
will benefit from the multi-sensory input. The
enlarged letters and additional audio while reading will increase attention
and reading comprehension.
their unique brain architecture and "unusual wiring" make reading,
writing, and spelling difficult, most people with dyslexia have gifts in
areas controlled by the right hemisphere of the brain. The right side
3-D visual-spatial skills
creative, global thinking
curiosity and tenacity
find people with dyslexia in every field. However, many excel in the